30 years' reform of the hottest electric power ind

2022-07-23
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The reform of China's power industry was first started to solve the problem of power shortage

before 1978, the country experienced a long-term power shortage situation for more than ten years. Enterprises in major cities of all provinces (autonomous regions) often cut off three services and open four services, and cut off power. According to the investigation of the Ministry of electric power, there was a power shortage of 10million kilowatts nationwide in 1978. The reason for the power shortage was the lack of investment. At that time, electric power was still planned and funded by the state, and the Ministry of electric power was solely responsible for it. "One household electricity" and "multiple household electricity" provinces (autonomous regions) and cities compete for "electricity cake" with a small total amount

in this case, the State Development Planning Commission suggested that the central and local governments cooperate to run electricity, and implement the method of "who invests, who uses electricity, who benefits". In 1981, the construction of two 100000 kW units in the first phase of Shandong Longkou power plant was started, with a total investment of 205million yuan. The central government and the local governments will each contribute part of their investment. The central government's investment will be financed within the national plan, and the local governments' investment will be financed by local enterprises of the whole people, township enterprises and production brigades year by year

the commencement of Longkou power plant is a significant event in the development history of China's power industry. It broke the monopoly of the power sector, implemented the cooperation between the central and local governments, and preliminarily explored the joint-stock power system. Since 2003, Jianbi, Jiangsu, Zhabei, Shanghai and other provinces (autonomous regions) and cities have followed suit, from cooperative thermal power to cooperative hydropower. For example, large hydropower stations such as Yantan in Guangxi, Qingjiang in Hubei, Ertan in Sichuan and Manwan in Yunnan have adopted the mode of central and local joint ventures

In 1983, according to the instructions of the central government, the Ministry of water and electricity held a symposium on rural electrification pilot counties, and the State Council approved and transmitted the "report on actively developing small hydropower to build Chinese rural electrification pilot counties"

after that, the national electricity consumption below county level increased from 24.2 billion kwh in 1978 to 459.9 billion kwh in 1998. In the past 20 years, rural power consumption has increased by 19 times. Before june1998, there were about 2400 counties in China, of which 760 county-level power enterprises were directly managed and supplied by the central power department, 1040 local county-level power supply enterprises were supplied by the provincial power companies in the form of single sale, and the remaining 600 county-level power enterprises were local power supply enterprises that built, managed and supplied by themselves, supplemented by large power in dry seasons, and mainly small hydropower. The conference formed a model and policy measures for developing rural electrification with local governments as the main body

Before 1978, the power operation implemented the policy of unified revenue and expenditure, that is, the operating income was turned over to the national finance, the expenditure on capital construction and maintaining simple reproduction was prepared by the production capital construction plan level by level, and transferred level by level. From the founding of the people's Republic of China to 1978, the low sales electricity price has been implemented. The power departments at the central, provincial (municipal) and district levels are not enterprises with the ability of independent operation, self-development and self transformation. After 1978, power enterprises at all levels gradually gained vitality after the reform of delegating power and interests, contracting operation and delegating enterprise autonomy

Since 1978, the electricity price reform has mainly introduced three reform measures: first, the implementation of "new electricity and new prices". In june1985, the State Council approved and transmitted to the State Economic Commission the "Temporary Provisions on encouraging fund-raising to run electricity and implementing multiple electricity prices", which verified the electricity price level on the principle of repayment of principal and interest for newly-built power projects, breaking the single electricity price model and cultivating a pricing mechanism according to the market law; Second, the "two cents" power construction fund has been issued, providing a stable financial channel for local power enterprises in all provinces (autonomous regions) and cities to expand reproduction; The third is to implement the "fuel transportation price increase and coal electricity linkage". With the rise of fuel and transportation prices, the electricity price will be increased accordingly. In 2003, the State Council approved the "electricity price reform plan" formulated by the national development and Reform Commission. The plan stipulates that the electricity price formation mechanism and electricity price management principles of the four links of electricity generation, transmission, distribution and sales will be gradually implemented in coordination with the power system reform, laying a foundation for the market-oriented reform of the power industry

in July, 1987, the person in charge of the State Council put forward the 20 character policy of power system reform of "separating government from enterprises, taking provinces as entities, raising funds to run electricity, combining electricity and unified dispatching" at the "National Symposium on power system reform", emphasizing that in order to solve the power shortage, taking provinces (regions) and cities as the main body of China's economic development, taking provinces (companies) as entities is conducive to accelerating power construction

at the same time, electricity is inter provincial, and inter provincial electricity adopts the mode of combined electricity, which is convenient for "working together in the same boat and governing in unity". Both cross province and power saving should become a consortium of all kinds of ownership and different forms of electricity. However, the system of unified dispatching and hierarchical management should be maintained

1989~1991, in addition to the Northeast China Power Corporation, the five regional power companies in China, the four regional power companies in East China, North China, central China and Northwest China, through the discussion of the regional power leading groups, decided to establish the Regional Power Consortium, determined that the regional power companies and the power companies of all provinces (autonomous regions) and cities were legal entities of the company, and implemented the policy of water and fire mutual aid, exchange of needed goods, peak cutting and valley filling Mutual standby, stable frequency, safe power supply and other management modes of "working together in the same boat, unity and governance"

In 1997, the State Council issued a notice to establish the State Power Corporation. The notice stipulates that "the State Power Corporation is an investment entity and asset management entity authorized by the state, an economic entity that operates trans regional power transmission and an enterprise legal person that uniformly manages the state power. The State Power Corporation is not an administrative company, but a large state-owned company linked by assets and established according to the modern enterprise system."

after the establishment of the State Power Corporation, the Ministry of electric power revoked it. However, the new leaders of the State Power Corporation did not follow the requirements of the State Council to run enterprises. The State Power Corporation emphasizes that the power industry has the characteristics of "natural monopoly". It should not only "control" electricity, backbone power plants and peak shaving and frequency modulation power plants, but also "control" nuclear power, natural gas and new energy. Only when "control" can there be no safety problems; It also emphasizes the implementation of "Four Unifications" for electricity, that is, "unified planning, unified construction, unified dispatching and unified management", and that electricity operating enterprises should "integrate a single buyer and seller in the market, a market trading center and a production dispatching center" and so on, and revert to the "centralized, vertical and integrated" monopoly management system of the Ministry of electric power industry before the reform. The notice of the State Council has become a dead letter

at the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century, the development environment of the power industry has changed significantly. First, the rapid development of raising funds to run electricity. Second, the State Power Corporation manages electricity in a unified way. In addition, some power plants directly under the state power corporation pay more attention to direct power dispatching than non direct power plants. The majority of local power enterprises require "fair, just and open" treatment in electricity, electricity price and electricity charge

the overall goal of the reform required by the central government is to avoid problems in future work: "break the monopoly, introduce competition, improve efficiency, reduce costs, improve the electricity price mechanism, optimize resource allocation, promote power development, promote the all China Federation, and build a market system under the supervision of the government that separates government from enterprises, fair competition, openness, order, and healthy development."

according to the requirements of the central government, from 2000 to 2002, the "power system reform plan", led by the national development and Reform Commission, widely solicited the opinions of people inside and outside the power system, and has been brewing for two years. However, the power system believes that the power industry is a monopoly industry. The power production and operation characteristics are "power generation, transmission and distribution are integrated, and production, supply and marketing are completed at the same time". It is worried that the reform will affect the safe and stable operation of power. Therefore, the power industry needs centralized management... And so on

at the beginning of 2002, the executive meeting of the State Council discussed and finally adopted the "power system reform plan". Since it was officially announced and implemented in March of that year, the power industry has entered a new period of market-oriented reform

from 2003 to 2008, nearly 300 new material high-tech enterprises have been promulgated and implemented in the "power system reform plan". Within five years, the State Power Corporation has been reorganized and 11 group companies have been established, including the State Power Corporation, Southern Power Corporation, five power generation group companies and four auxiliary group companies. In 2003, the State Electricity Regulatory Commission was established and the "regulation on electricity regulation" was promulgated

however, the reform is not plain sailing. The reform of separating the main from the auxiliary and separating the main from the "many" in power enterprises lags behind; The separation of power transmission and distribution and the reform of rural power system are stagnant; Electricity price reform still needs to be actively promoted

China is a developing country. In the face of a long-term lack of battery neck, there has always been the problem of "focusing on power generation rather than power supply". In terms of power construction, it is developing towards long-distance, ultra-high voltage and even ultra-high voltage transmission. The power structure, especially the receiving end system and the rural power planning and construction are lagging behind. The urban distribution and agricultural construction is far behind the main construction, and there are many historical debts

in the management system, chasing will lead to changes in the outer diameter of the cable. It requires direct management, agency management and holding, but lacks the idea of sincere help and support of rural electricity. In case of power failure in large power and large cities, great attention should be paid to it, and emergency repair and power maintenance should be organized. However, the problem of power failure in rural areas, sometimes not repaired in time for 10 days and a half months, has been ignored for a long time, and such incidents are not uncommon

in fact, all large and medium-sized state-owned power enterprises should adhere to the principle that the elimination of errors caused by devices should be introduced by Shandong Sita high tech first today, which means that errors are caused by business nature, and adhere to the concept of "people-oriented". They should not use the monopoly position to occupy state-owned assets, transfer the profits of state-owned enterprises, nor "privatize" power generation enterprises and power enterprises under monopoly conditions. However, local power enterprises cannot be suppressed. Such acts as purchasing electricity at a low price, selling electricity at a high price, buying small hydropower and local electricity at a bargain price, and seeking the interests of small groups need to be explicitly prohibited

since the 1990s, provinces (autonomous regions) and cities have successively established local power, energy and construction investment companies, forming a new force for local power supply. The 30-year history of the reform and opening up of the power industry is the history of breaking the exclusive power supply and implementing the diversification of investment subjects. The 30-year history has proved that power plants can be run by everyone. Especially after the separation of power plants, the five power groups and many local investment enterprises cooperate to set up power plants, participate in and hold shares with each other, and form limited companies or joint stock limited companies according to the "company law", which is moving towards a modern enterprise system

the problem of electricity that drags the leg

since the power plant can be run by everyone, why can't electricity be run by everyone according to the joint-stock system? At present, the development of electric power lags behind the development of power supply. The reason is that electric power has not broken the situation of one company running its own business

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